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In Europe, ambient ozone levels are high enough to cause visible injury in native species. Assessment of visible injury is a feasible way to detect the impacts of this pollutant in forest plants and to identify potential risk areas. Ozone-induced visible injury has been incorporated in monitoring programmes, and it is surveyed at a pan-European scale under the protocols of ICP-Forests.

This Web Site is an initiative of Fundación CEAM, in connection with the activities of the Working Group on Ambient Air Quality of ICP-Forests to provide support for the recognition of ozone symptoms. It contains  photodocumentation on ozone-induced visible and microscopic injury in forest plants. Symptoms have been either observed in the field or reproduced experimentally by fumigating plants with enhanced ozone levels in Open Top Chambers.




Suggested Citation: Calatayud, V. Ozone injury in European Forest Species. http://www.ozoneinjury.org.



Last Updated on Monday, 21 January 2019 15:32
The ICP-Forests Methods for Assessing Ozone-Induced Visible Injury Print E-mail

Ozone and Forests

Ozone is one of the most important pollutants in large areas of Europe. There is evidence that the ambient ozone concentrations found in Europe can cause a range of effects to vegetation, including visible leaf injury, growth and yield reductions, and altered sensitivity to biotic and additional abiotic stresses. Since ozone pollution leaves no elemental residue that can be detected by analytical techniques, visible injury on needles and leaves is the only easily detectable evidence in the field. Even though visible injury does not include all the possible forms of injury to trees and natural vegetation (i.e. pre-visible physiological changes, reduction in growth, etc.), observation of typical symptoms on above ground plant parts in the field has turned out to be a valuable tool for the assessment of the impact of the ambient ozone in sensitive species.

In the framework of the ICP-Forest, the Working Group on Air Quality has prepared a submanual for the assessment of ozone injury on European Forest Ecosystems (Intensive Monitoring Plots, Level II). The main objectives are the identification of ozone sensitive species from European forest ecosystems, the assessment of the injury, and to provide an extensive and harmonised photo-documentation of ozone symptoms for these species, and to give information on the spatial distribution of the symptoms. The ICP-Forest Manual can be downloaded here


Last Updated on Monday, 21 January 2019 15:02
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Ozone symptoms in Fraxinus excelsior


Information included in this Web Site is the result of activities supported by Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación of Spain and of Conselleria de Agricultura, Medio Ambiente, Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Rural, thaks to their support to Fundación CEAM. Most of the microscopic pictures have been kindly provided by the Anatomy Group of Jardí Botànic de València. Several authors are acknowledged for contributing with ozone injury photos.



Last Updated on Monday, 21 January 2019 14:53